Wilhelm Wundt, considered the father of experimental psychology, developed
many concepts that became the foundation of structuralism. In 1893, he presented his tridimensional theory of feeling. Which of the following pairs of feelings is
NOT part of his theory?
Anxious and content are not feelings identified in the tridimensional theory of feeling. This theory posits that feelings can be classified as any of the following: excited or depressed, tense or relaxed, pleasant or unpleasant. Additionally, any feeling might contain feelings from any of those three categories.
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), developed by Ellis, is based on the belief that irrational beliefs are the cause of emotional disturbances. This method of therapy is based on the ABC model (activating events, beliefs about events, and consequences of events). Ellis suggests three main insights of REBT. Which of the following statements does NOT belong to one of those insights?
Insight alone rarely enables individuals to resolve emotional disturbance.
Irrational beliefs are the main source of emotional disturbance and consequences.
Individuals will continue to hold onto irrational beliefs as long as they are
Confronting and changing irrational beliefs can result in solving emotional disturbances and avoiding them in the future.
Ellis does not suggest that emotional disturbance can be resolved or cured, so to speak. Rather, he posits that overcoming such problems requires continual and energetic work on replacing unhealthy thoughts with healthy thoughts, confronting and disputing irrational beliefs, and maintaining insight.
Client-centered therapy, a humanistic method developed by Carl Rogers, is based
on the idea that all people have the innate capacity to develop into positive, healthy beings. What does this model attribute pathology and behavioral problems to?
Negative environmental circumstances
Lack of opportunity to learn positive traits
Incongruence between true feelings and experience
Incongruence between true feelings and the external world
This therapy model assumes that pathology and problems are the result of incongruence between the self-one’s true feelings-and experience, defined as the ability to be aware of and express those feelings. Client-centered therapy focuses
on the internal processes of the individual rather than environmental factors that shape those processes.
It has been observed that cyclists tend to have faster racing times when practicing
with a team as compared to practicing alone. What is this phenomenon known as?
Social facilitation refers to the tendency for people to perform better when they are working with others or being watched; a cyclist practicing in a group will tend to be faster than when practicing alone.
Studies on the relationship between viewing violence on TV and performing violence suggest a positive relationship. What theory of aggression do those findings contradict?
Group membership theory
Social learning theory
Catharsis theory of aggression posits that engaging in or viewing an aggressive act can reduce future aggressive impulses. Viewing violence on TV is thought to increase aggressive behavior.
Fear, disgust, anger, and contempt are considered emotions.
Fear, disgust, anger, and contempt are considered primary emotions. An emotion is a psychological and physiological state that is associated with our feelings and thoughts. Primary emotions are those emotions that we experience first and they are considered to be representative of the full spectrum of human emotions. For example, people in Ghana and people in America will experience these same primary emotions.
Which theory of personality refers to children as “little scientists?”
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Watson’s Behaviorism Theory
The personality theory that refers to children as “little scientists” is Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development. Piaget is credited with being the first person to publicize the idea that children are not less intelligent than adults; they just think differently.
According to Albert Adler, why do some people develop an “Inferiority Complex?
They can’t live up to their parents’ high expectations.
They have a genetic predisposition toward this personality trait.
They feel guilty about something bad they did.
They never overcame their childhood feelings of inferiority.
According to Albert Adler, an “inferiority complex” arises when people can’t overcome their childhood feelings of inferiority. Every child initially feels inferior surrounded by powerful adults, but in due time, in the healthy personality, those feelings go away. For others, subsequent life happenings revive the notion of inferiority so it persists and intensifies.